Buku Medicine



Please refer to 'Immunoglobulins - high' and 'Immnuoglobulins - low' modules for individual immunoglobulin subclasses. Common causes of hypergammaglobulinaemia:

Chronic infection 

Osteomyelitis, SBE, TB- all immunoglobulins 

Chronic inflammation 

SLE, RhA, Sjogren’s syndrome - all immunoglobulins;  

elevated IgG1 in Sjogren's;  

Sarcoidosis (predominantly IgG and IgA) 


Liver disease: 

Primary Biliary Cirrhosis (IgM, may be very high with small monoclonal bands on polyclonal background]) 

Alcohol (IgA, polyclonal, 'beta-gamma bridging' on electrophoresis) 

Fatty liver, autoimmune hepatitis (IgA) 

Hodgkin lymphoma  

IgE raised (also eosinophilia) 

Viral infections: 

HIV - all Igs raised (IgG very high but polyclonal) 



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Immunodeficiency patients

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Use of IVIg

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